Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International
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Commons public licenses does not create a lawyer-client or other
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Using Creative Commons Public Licenses
Creative Commons public licenses provide a standard set of terms and
conditions that creators and other rights holders may use to share original
works of authorship and other material subject to copyright and certain
other rights specified in the public license below. The following
considerations are for informational purposes only, are not exhaustive, and
do not form part of our licenses.
Considerations for licensors: Our public licenses are intended for use by
those authorized to give the public permission to use material in ways
otherwise restricted by copyright and certain other rights. Our licenses are
irrevocable. Licensors should read and understand the terms and conditions
of the license they choose before applying it. Licensors should also secure
all rights necessary before applying our licenses so that the public can
reuse the material as expected. Licensors should clearly mark any material
not subject to the license. This includes other CC-licensed material, or
material used under an exception or limitation to copyright. More
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Considerations for the public: By using one of our public licenses, a
licensor grants the public permission to use the licensed material under
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licenses grant only permissions under copyright and certain other rights
that a licensor has authority to grant. Use of the licensed material may
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Although not required by our licenses, you are encouraged to respect those
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Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License
By exercising the Licensed Rights (defined below), You accept and agree to
be bound by the terms and conditions of this Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License ("Public License").
To the extent this Public License may be interpreted as a contract, You are
granted the Licensed Rights in consideration of Your acceptance of these
terms and conditions, and the Licensor grants You such rights in
consideration of benefits the Licensor receives from making the Licensed
Material available under these terms and conditions.
Section 1 – Definitions.
a. Adapted Material means material subject to Copyright and Similar Rights
that is derived from or based upon the Licensed Material and in which the
Licensed Material is translated, altered, arranged, transformed, or
otherwise modified in a manner requiring permission under the Copyright
and Similar Rights held by the Licensor. For purposes of this Public
License, where the Licensed Material is a musical work, performance, or
sound recording, Adapted Material is always produced where the Licensed
Material is synched in timed relation with a moving image.
b. Adapter's License means the license You apply to Your Copyright and
Similar Rights in Your contributions to Adapted Material in accordance
with the terms and conditions of this Public License.
c. BY-SA Compatible License means a license listed at
creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses, approved by Creative Commons as
essentially the equivalent of this Public License.
d. Copyright and Similar Rights means copyright and/or similar rights
closely related to copyright including, without limitation, performance,
broadcast, sound recording, and Sui Generis Database Rights, without
regard to how the rights are labeled or categorized. For purposes of this
Public License, the rights specified in Section 2(b)(1)-(2) are not
Copyright and Similar Rights.
e. Effective Technological Measures means those measures that, in the
absence of proper authority, may not be circumvented under laws fulfilling
obligations under Article 11 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty adopted on
December 20, 1996, and/or similar international agreements.
f. Exceptions and Limitations means fair use, fair dealing, and/or any
other exception or limitation to Copyright and Similar Rights that applies
to Your use of the Licensed Material.
g. License Elements means the license attributes listed in the name of a
Creative Commons Public License. The License Elements of this Public
License are Attribution and ShareAlike.
h. Licensed Material means the artistic or literary work, database, or
other material to which the Licensor applied this Public License.
i. Licensed Rights means the rights granted to You subject to the terms
and conditions of this Public License, which are limited to all Copyright
and Similar Rights that apply to Your use of the Licensed Material and
that the Licensor has authority to license.
j. Licensor means the individual(s) or entity(ies) granting rights under
this Public License.
k. Share means to provide material to the public by any means or process
that requires permission under the Licensed Rights, such as reproduction,
public display, public performance, distribution, dissemination,
communication, or importation, and to make material available to the
public including in ways that members of the public may access the
material from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.
l. Sui Generis Database Rights means rights other than copyright resulting
from Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11
March 1996 on the legal protection of databases, as amended and/or
succeeded, as well as other essentially equivalent rights anywhere in the
m. You means the individual or entity exercising the Licensed Rights under
this Public License. Your has a corresponding meaning.
Section 2 – Scope.
a. License grant.
1. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Public License, the
Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free,
non-sublicensable, non-exclusive, irrevocable license to exercise the
Licensed Rights in the Licensed Material to:
A. reproduce and Share the Licensed Material, in whole or in part;
- B. produce, reproduce, and Share Adapted Material.
2. Exceptions and Limitations. For the avoidance of doubt, where
Exceptions and Limitations apply to Your use, this Public License does
not apply, and You do not need to comply with its terms and
3. Term. The term of this Public License is specified in Section 6(a).
4. Media and formats; technical modifications allowed. The Licensor
authorizes You to exercise the Licensed Rights in all media and
formats whether now known or hereafter created, and to make technical
modifications necessary to do so. The Licensor waives and/or agrees
not to assert any right or authority to forbid You from making
technical modifications necessary to exercise the Licensed Rights,
including technical modifications necessary to circumvent Effective
Technological Measures. For purposes of this Public License, simply
making modifications authorized by this Section 2(a)(4) never produces
5. Downstream recipients.
A. Offer from the Licensor – Licensed Material. Every recipient of
the Licensed Material automatically receives an offer from the
Licensor to exercise the Licensed Rights under the terms and
conditions of this Public License.
B. Additional offer from the Licensor – Adapted Material. Every
recipient of Adapted Material from You automatically receives an
offer from the Licensor to exercise the Licensed Rights in the
Adapted Material under the conditions of the Adapter's License You
C. No downstream restrictions. You may not offer or impose any
additional or different terms or conditions on, or apply any
Effective Technological Measures to, the Licensed Material if
doing so restricts exercise of the Licensed Rights by any
recipient of the Licensed Material.
6. No endorsement. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may
be construed as permission to assert or imply that You are, or that
Your use of the Licensed Material is, connected with, or sponsored,
endorsed, or granted official status by, the Licensor or others
designated to receive attribution as provided in Section
b. Other rights.
1. Moral rights, such as the right of integrity, are not licensed
under this Public License, nor are publicity, privacy, and/or other
similar personality rights; however, to the extent possible, the
Licensor waives and/or agrees not to assert any such rights held by
the Licensor to the limited extent necessary to allow You to exercise
the Licensed Rights, but not otherwise.
2. Patent and trademark rights are not licensed under this Public
3. To the extent possible, the Licensor waives any right to collect
royalties from You for the exercise of the Licensed Rights, whether
directly or through a collecting society under any voluntary or
waivable statutory or compulsory licensing scheme. In all other cases
the Licensor expressly reserves any right to collect such royalties.
Section 3 – License Conditions.
Your exercise of the Licensed Rights is expressly made subject to the
1. If You Share the Licensed Material (including in modified form),
A. retain the following if it is supplied by the Licensor with the
B. indicate if You modified the Licensed Material and retain an
indication of any previous modifications; and
C. indicate the Licensed Material is licensed under this Public
License, and include the text of, or the URI or hyperlink to, this
2. You may satisfy the conditions in Section 3(a)(1) in any reasonable
manner based on the medium, means, and context in which You Share the
Licensed Material. For example, it may be reasonable to satisfy the
conditions by providing a URI or hyperlink to a resource that includes
the required information.
3. If requested by the Licensor, You must remove any of the
information required by Section 3(a)(1)(A) to the extent reasonably
b. ShareAlike.In addition to the conditions in Section 3(a), if You Share
Adapted Material You produce, the following conditions also apply.
1. The Adapter's License You apply must be a Creative Commons license
with the same License Elements, this version or later, or a BY-SA
2. You must include the text of, or the URI or hyperlink to, the
Adapter's License You apply. You may satisfy this condition in any
reasonable manner based on the medium, means, and context in which You
Share Adapted Material.
3. You may not offer or impose any additional or different terms or
conditions on, or apply any Effective Technological Measures to,
Adapted Material that restrict exercise of the rights granted under
the Adapter's License You apply.
Section 4 – Sui Generis Database Rights.
Where the Licensed Rights include Sui Generis Database Rights that apply to
Your use of the Licensed Material:
a. for the avoidance of doubt, Section 2(a)(1) grants You the right to
extract, reuse, reproduce, and Share all or a substantial portion of the
contents of the database;
b. if You include all or a substantial portion of the database contents in
a database in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights, then the
database in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights (but not its
individual contents) is Adapted Material, including for purposes of
Section 3(b); and
c. You must comply with the conditions in Section 3(a) if You Share all or
a substantial portion of the contents of the database.
For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 4 supplements and does not
replace Your obligations under this Public License where the Licensed
Rights include other Copyright and Similar Rights.
Section 5 – Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability.
a. Unless otherwise separately undertaken by the Licensor, to the extent
possible, the Licensor offers the Licensed Material as-is and
as-available, and makes no representations or warranties of any kind
concerning the Licensed Material, whether express, implied, statutory, or
other. This includes, without limitation, warranties of title,
merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement,
absence of latent or other defects, accuracy, or the presence or absence
of errors, whether or not known or discoverable. Where disclaimers of
warranties are not allowed in full or in part, this disclaimer may not
apply to You.
b. To the extent possible, in no event will the Licensor be liable to You
on any legal theory (including, without limitation, negligence) or
otherwise for any direct, special, indirect, incidental, consequential,
punitive, exemplary, or other losses, costs, expenses, or damages arising
out of this Public License or use of the Licensed Material, even if the
Licensor has been advised of the possibility of such losses, costs,
expenses, or damages. Where a limitation of liability is not allowed in
full or in part, this limitation may not apply to You.
c. The disclaimer of warranties and limitation of liability provided above
shall be interpreted in a manner that, to the extent possible, most
closely approximates an absolute disclaimer and waiver of all liability.
Section 6 – Term and Termination.
a. This Public License applies for the term of the Copyright and Similar
Rights licensed here. However, if You fail to comply with this Public
License, then Your rights under this Public License terminate
b. Where Your right to use the Licensed Material has terminated under
Section 6(a), it reinstates:
1. automatically as of the date the violation is cured, provided it is
cured within 30 days of Your discovery of the violation; or
- 2. upon express reinstatement by the Licensor.
c. For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 6(b) does not affect any right
the Licensor may have to seek remedies for Your violations of this Public
d. For the avoidance of doubt, the Licensor may also offer the Licensed
Material under separate terms or conditions or stop distributing the
Licensed Material at any time; however, doing so will not terminate this
e. Sections 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 survive termination of this Public License.
Section 7 – Other Terms and Conditions.
a. The Licensor shall not be bound by any additional or different terms or
conditions communicated by You unless expressly agreed.
b. Any arrangements, understandings, or agreements regarding the Licensed
Material not stated herein are separate from and independent of the terms
and conditions of this Public License.
Section 8 – Interpretation.
a. For the avoidance of doubt, this Public License does not, and shall not
be interpreted to, reduce, limit, restrict, or impose conditions on any
use of the Licensed Material that could lawfully be made without
permission under this Public License.
b. To the extent possible, if any provision of this Public License is
deemed unenforceable, it shall be automatically reformed to the minimum
extent necessary to make it enforceable. If the provision cannot be
reformed, it shall be severed from this Public License without affecting
the enforceability of the remaining terms and conditions.
c. No term or condition of this Public License will be waived and no
failure to comply consented to unless expressly agreed to by the Licensor.
d. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be interpreted as a
limitation upon, or waiver of, any privileges and immunities that apply to
the Licensor or You, including from the legal processes of any
jurisdiction or authority.
Creative Commons is not a party to its public licenses. Notwithstanding,
Creative Commons may elect to apply one of its public licenses to material
it publishes and in those instances will be considered the "Licensor." The
text of the Creative Commons public licenses is dedicated to the public
domain under the CC0 Public Domain Dedication. Except for the limited
purpose of indicating that material is shared under a Creative Commons
public license or as otherwise permitted by the Creative Commons policies
published at creativecommons.org/policies, Creative Commons does not
authorize the use of the trademark "Creative Commons" or any other trademark
or logo of Creative Commons without its prior written consent including,
without limitation, in connection with any unauthorized modifications to any
of its public licenses or any other arrangements, understandings, or
agreements concerning use of licensed material. For the avoidance of doubt,
this paragraph does not form part of the public licenses.
Creative Commons may be contacted at creativecommons.org.